Len's Summary: A series of concrete and steel reinforced forts, artillery and infantry emplacements, barracks and warehouses guarding the border with Prussia and key Russian rail lines begun in 1885 and modernized from 1912. Kaunas, now in Lithuania, is a former capital of that nation. Drawn largely from Russian archives.
Ambassador Shurtleff, a retired American Foreign Service officer who served as President of The World War One Historical Association and as a past President of The Western Front Association – U S Branch, passed away on January 22, 2014. The searchable version of Len’s Bookshelf was created and will be maintained in his honor.