Walking Verdun: A Guide to the Battlefield

Walking Verdun: A Guide to the BattlefieldWalking Verdun: A Guide to the Battlefield by Christina Holstein
ISBN: 1844158675
Published by Pen & Sword Books on July 2009
Genres: Travel, World War I
Pages: 176

Len's Summary: A new guide book from one of the most knowledgeable Western Front historians and guides. // A New work by long-time battlefield guide and WFA member who also wrote an earlier Pen & Sword book on Ft. Douaumont.

The Patriot’s Progress

The Patriot’s ProgressThe Patriot's Progress by Henry Williamson
ISBN: 9780750936408
Published by History Press Limited on May 25th 2004
Genres: Fiction, War & Military
Pages: 288

Len's Summary: Story of a young British Tommy, who went on to be a noted nature writer. // One of two autobiographical novels describing the author’s experiences as an infantryman in WWI which turned him into a Pacifist. First published in 1930. Williamson is best known for his prize-winning 1927 novel Tarka the Otter.

The Secret Battle: A Tragedy of the First World War

The Secret Battle: A Tragedy of the First World WarThe Secret Battle: A Tragedy of the First World War by A.P. Herbert, Winston S. Churchill, Malcolm Brown
ISBN: 1848325215
Published by Frontline Books on April 1st 2009
Genres: History, Military, General
Pages: 216

Len's Summary: The fictionalized story of an idealistic young British officer first published in 1919. // First published by Methuen in 1919 and in print virtually ever since, this semi-autobiographical novel follows the career of a young man who left Oxford to enlist later taking a commission and serving at Gallipoli and on the Western Front. This was the first book to freely discuss executions for desertion in the British forces.

The Somme Stations

The Somme StationsThe Somme Stations by Andrew Martin
ISBN: 0571249647
Published by Faber & Faber on February 1st 2012
Genres: Fiction, Mystery & Detective
Pages: 336

Len's Summary: Number seven in the Jim Stringer Steam Detective series finds Jim investigating a murder in a British railway pioneer battalion on the Western Front. // Enlisted British Army railwayman Jim Stronger finds himself falsely accused of murder during the 1916 Somme Campaign. Winner of the British Dagger Award for Best Historical Mystery.

Paths of Glory

Paths of GloryPaths of Glory by Humphrey Cobb, James H. Meredith, David Simon
ISBN: 0143106112
Published by Penguin Classics on June 29th 2010
Genres: Fiction, Classics, Literary, War & Military
Pages: 190

Len's Summary: First published in 1935, this provocative novel was made into a 1957 motion picture directed by Stanley Kubrick. Kurt Douglas was nominated for an Academy Award for his leading role as a French infantry colonel ordered to take an impregnable hill. Cobb was war correspondent in France and Belgium and a witness to the German invasion. // Written in the 1930s, this classic WWI novel of the French Army was authored by an American veteran of the Canadian forces. The 1957 movie version directed by Stanley Kubrick and still available on VHS and DVD earned Kurt Douglas an academy award nomination.

Wielding the Dagger: The MarineKorps Flandern and the German War Effort, 1914-1918

Wielding the Dagger: The MarineKorps Flandern and the German War Effort, 1914-1918Wielding the Dagger: The MarineKorps Flandern and the German War Effort, 1914-1918 by Mark D. Karau
ISBN: 9780313324758
Published by Praeger on October 30th 2003
Genres: History, Europe, General, Germany, Military, World War I
Pages: 268

Len's Summary: Two divisions made up of naval reservists were formed and deployed as infantry and artillerymen on the Flanders coast in 1914. Many of them and their officers are buried at Vladslo and other German cemeteries in Belgium which we visited on our April 2003 tour of the Ypres Salient. // The little known story of a two-division-sized German submarine-destroyer and naval infantry-artillery group operating in Belgian Flanders.

The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918

The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918 by Kees van Dijk
ISBN: 9067183083
Published by Kitlv Press on March 2008
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Asia, Southeast Asia

Len's Summary: By 1917, the Dutch East Indies was facing a radical nationalist movement, as well as economic an pinch caused by loss of exports, wartime trade restrictions, the war at sea and shortages of shipping. // How severe trade restrictions imposed by the British impacted colonial economy and society, threatening Dutch rule in the Indies. See also Hubert van Tuyll The Netherlands and World War I (Brill, 2001) for a broader diplomatic and political-economic study of armed Netherlands neutrality.

The Great Naval Game: Britain and Germany in the Age of Empire

The Great Naval Game: Britain and Germany in the Age of EmpireThe Great Naval Game: Britain and Germany in the Age of Empire by Jan Rüger
ISBN: 0521114616
Published by Cambridge University Press on June 25th 2009
Genres: Europe, General, Germany, Great Britain, Military, Naval
Pages: 354

Len's Summary: An analysis of the Anglo-German naval race. // Anglo-German antagonism fanned by popular pro-naval sentiments.

Pals on the Somme, 1916

Pals on the Somme, 1916Pals on the Somme, 1916 by Roni Wilkinson
ISBN: 1844157652
Published by Pen & Sword Books on June 1st 2008
Genres: History, Military, World War I
Pages: 224

Len's Summary: History of creation the British Pals Battalions made up of men from the same town or craft. // Looks at the participation of the Pals battalions which fought on the Somme in 1916 and how the Pals phenomenon was born.

Military Intelligence and the Arab Revolt: The First Modern Intelligence War

Military Intelligence and the Arab Revolt: The First Modern Intelligence WarMilitary Intelligence and the Arab Revolt: The First Modern Intelligence War by Polly A. Mohs
ISBN: 9780415493314
Published by Routledge on November 1st 2008
Genres: History, Europe, General, Middle East, Military, World War I
Pages: 256

Len's Summary: His book goes far beyond Lawrence of Arabia. It examines the imaginative exploitation of intelligence in formulating an effective British strategy for supporting the Arab Revolt again the Ottomans during the First World War. For more on this subject see: War by Revolution: Germany & Great Britain in the Middle East in the Era of World War I, Donald McKale, Kent State, 2008. // The creation and ascendancy of the Foreign Office’s Arab Bureau created specifically to coordinate imperial operations in Arab lands. The hard, often dirty work behind the glamour behind Lawrence of Arabia.

Stanley Spencer’s Great War Diary, 1915-1918

Stanley Spencer’s Great War Diary, 1915-1918Stanley Spencer's Great War Diary, 1915-1918 by Stanley Spencer, Arthur Littlewood
ISBN: 9781844157785
Published by Pen & Sword Military on 2008
Genres: Biography & Autobiography, General, History, Military, World War I
Pages: 176

Len's Summary: The editor provides a commentary for these recently-discovered letters from a VC winner. // Diaries of a British veteran. // Written by a veteran of the Royal Fusiliers and West Yorkshire regiments who served from 1915 on the Somme, at Moutaubon and Vimy.

A Part of History: Aspects of the British Experience of the First World War

A Part of History: Aspects of the British Experience of the First World WarA Part of History: Aspects of the British Experience of the First World War by Michael Howard
ISBN: 9780826498137
Published by Continuum on August 20th 2008
Genres: History, General, Europe, Great Britain, Historiography, Military, World War I
Pages: 229

Len's Summary: A scholarly examination of revisionism and traditionalism in studies of The Great War by British historians. // A series of brief essays written by British historians (Gary Sheffield, Julian Putkowski, Terry Castle, Malcom Brown among others) who engage in much critical comment on present and past historians and histories of The Great War. Labeled by Hew Strachan in a review for the Times Literary Supplement as a rehash of old, insular arguments.

The German Infantryman, 1914-1918

The German Infantryman, 1914-1918The German Infantryman 1914-1918 by Jean-Claude Laparra
ISBN: 2352500710
Published by Histoire & Collections on July 1st 2008
Genres: Germany, Military, World War I
Pages: 66

Len's Summary: A view of the war as experienced by a typical German infantryman based on memorabilia and notes left by an unidentified infanterist found in a Berlin flea market. // Explores the life of the German infantryman. In French.

Mons, 1914-1918: The Beginning and the End

Mons, 1914-1918: The Beginning and the EndMons, 1914-1918: The Beginning and the End by Don Farr
ISBN: 9781906033286
Published by Helion & Company on December 23rd 2008
Genres: Military, Other, World War I
Pages: 233

Len's Summary: A four-year catastrophe in and around a Flemish cloth town. // Describes the catastrophic events that took place at Mons in 1914 and again in 1918.

1917: Tactics, Training and Technology

1917: Tactics, Training and Technology1917: Tactics, Training and Technology by Jeffrey Grey, Peter Dennis
ISBN: 978 0 9803 7967 9
Published by Loftus Australia on February 2008
Genres: Australia & New Zealand, Military, World War I

Len's Summary: Collection of 11 essays based on papers presented at the 2007 Australian Chief of Army’s Military History Conference in 2007. Contributors include Robin Prior, Gary Sheffield, Dan Todman, Tim Cook and Andrew Wiest, Robert Doughty and Michael Neiberg. // An anthology focusing mainly but not exclusively on the BEF. Favorably reviewed by Bruce Gudmundsson in The Journal of Military History.

A Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Peace We Pay Today

A Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Peace We Pay TodayA Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Peace We Pay Today by David A. Andelman, Henry Kissinger
ISBN: 1620459914
Published by Wiley on July 1st 2014
Genres: Middle East, Military, World War I
Pages: 336

Len's Summary: One of a recent series of popular pot boiler journalistic-style histories blaming most of world’s troubles on the Versailles Treaty. // An analysis linking current day international political woes to the Versailles treaty.

Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle East

Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle EastSpies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain's Covert Empire in the Middle East by Priya Satia
ISBN: 0199734801
Published by Oxford University Press on November 1st 2009
Genres: Political Science, General, Middle East, Great Britain, Colonialism & Post-Colonialism
Pages: 458

Len's Summary: Beyond Lawrence of Arabia: The interaction between culture and imperialism. // Scholarly critique of British imperialism as a paranoid and brutal arm of military policy with its roots in Edwardian England; questions the liberal underpinnings of imperial ideology. A cultural history of the interwar British imperial state.

The Remains of Company D: A Story of the Great War

The Remains of Company D: A Story of the Great WarThe Remains of Company D: A Story of the Great War by James Carl Nelson
ISBN: 9780312650414
Published by Macmillan on September 28th 2010
Genres: History, Military, World War I, United States
Pages: 400

Len's Summary: A tale of battle and the search for the legacy of the author’s Doughboy grandfather. Available in November 2009. // Follows the members of Company D, 28th Infantry Regiment, First Division from enlistment to combat at Cantigny, St. Mihiel and The Meuse-Argonne.

The Day We Won the War: Turning Point at Amiens 8th August 1918

The Day We Won the War: Turning Point at Amiens 8th August 1918The Day We Won the War: Turning Point at Amiens 8th August 1918 by Charles Messenger
ISBN: 0297852817
Published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson on March 3rd 2009
Genres: Great Britain, Military, Strategy, World War I
Pages: 288

Len's Summary: The fateful day Ludendorff became convinced the German army was beaten. // Ninetieth anniversary analysis of the August 1918 break- through at Amiens which opened the victorious “100 days” ending World War I. The mixed arms attack of the British 4th Army also included troops from Australia, Canada and America.

The War on Hospital Ships, 1914-1918

The War on Hospital Ships, 1914-1918The War on Hospital Ships, 1914-1918 by Stephen McGreal
ISBN: 1844158586
Published by Pen & Sword Books on April 1st 2009
Genres: Military, Naval, World War I
Pages: 272

Len's Summary: German submarine sinkings of unarmed hospital ships outraged the American, British and French publics and caused the UK to paint hospital ships in drab colors, defensively arm and sail them in protected convoys. // German sinkings of Entente hospital ships detailed.

Black Fokker Leader: The First World War’s Last Airfighter Knight

Black Fokker Leader: The First World War’s Last Airfighter KnightBlack Fokker Leader: The First World War’s Last Airfighter Knight by Peter Kilduff
ISBN: 9781906502287
Published by Casemate Publishers on May 1st 2009
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Aviation
Pages: 256

Len's Summary: Wartime exploits of an all-but-forgotten German ace; Kilduff’s 13th book on WWI aviation. // The story of German ace Carl Degelow and his squadron of mostly Fokker D-VII recounted by a premier aviation historian.

Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War

Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of WarShell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War by Anton Kaes
ISBN: 9780691008509
Published by Princeton University Press on October 2nd 2011
Genres: Art, Film & Video, History, Europe, General, Germany, Performing Arts, Social Science
Pages: 328

Len's Summary: Weimar Republic culture and the wounds of war. // Interpretative history of Weimar-era German cinema and how it reflected the memory of The Great War.

Untold War: New Perspectives in First World War Studies

Untold War: New Perspectives in First World War StudiesUntold War: New Perspectives in First World War Studies by Heather Jones, Jennifer O'brien, Christoph Schmidt-supprian
ISBN: 9004166599
Published by Brill Academic Publishers on June 4th 2008
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Europe, General, Essays
Pages: 452

Len's Summary: Scholarly essays re-examining the global civil and military impact of the conflict; how the war changed societies. Contributors include prize-winning historians Alan Kramer and Dan Todman, with an introduction by John Horne. (I will be reviewing this for Stand To!) //Essays covering diverse themes such as combat, occupation, civil identity, juvenile delinquency, chaplains, art and remembrance across several countries: Germany, France, Britain, colonial Africa, Belgium and Romania. Fourth in the series of edited proceedings from conferences sponsored by the International Society for First World War Studies. Other titles are Uncovered Fields, Warfare and Belligerence, and Untold War.

Letters from Verdun: Frontline Experiences of an American Volunteer in World War I France

Letters from Verdun: Frontline Experiences of an American Volunteer in World War I FranceLetters from Verdun: Frontline Experiences of an American Volunteer in World War I France by William C. Harvey, Avery Wolfe
ISBN: 1932033947
Published by Casemate Publishers on December 2009
Genres: Illustrated, Letters, Military, Personal Accounts, United States, World War I
Pages: 240

Len's Summary: The diary and letters of Avery Royce Wolfe recounting his service as a volunteer ambulance driver with the American Field Service near Verdun and with French occupation forces in the Rhineland from June 1917 to April 1919. Excellent photos taken by Avery Wolfe illustrate this volume. // Letters of a volunteer ambulance driver in the French army at Verdun and during the Ludendorff offensives of 1918. // Letters of an American volunteer ambulance driver in the French Army.

Cambrai 1917: The Myth of the First Great Tank Battle

Cambrai 1917: The Myth of the First Great Tank BattleCambrai 1917: The Myth of the First Great Tank Battle by Bryn Hammond
ISBN: 9780297845539
Published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson on November 4th 2008
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Great Britain
Pages: 500

Len's Summary: The author asserts that that innovative artillery tactics, not tanks (400 of them), were responsible for short-lived British successes at Cambrai. // The author sees the battle as a draw, but a nonetheless useful lesson leading toward more mobile warfare.

The Last Great War: British Society and the First World War

The Last Great War: British Society and the First World WarThe Last Great War: British Society and the First World War by Adrian Gregory
ISBN: 9780521728836
Published by Cambridge University Press on October 16th 2008
Genres: History, Europe, Great Britain, Military, General, World War I, Social History
Pages: 362

Len's Summary: A new social history. // A ground-breaking new cultural and social history of the British home front.

We Hope to Get Word Tomorrow: The Garvin Family Letters, 1914-1916

We Hope to Get Word Tomorrow: The Garvin Family Letters, 1914-1916We Hope to Get Word Tomorrow: The Garvin Family Letters, 1914-1916 by Mark Pottle, John Ledingham
ISBN: 9781848325456
Published by Casemate Publishers on 2009
Genres: History, Europe, Great Britain, Military, World War I, Veterans, Personal Accounts
Pages: 280

Len's Summary: Collection of letters from a young British subaltern to his mother and father at home. // Exchanges of letters between a young subaltern and his family in England.

Survivors of a Kind: Memoirs of the Western Front

Survivors of a Kind: Memoirs of the Western FrontSurvivors of a Kind: Memoirs of the Western Front by Brian Bond
ISBN: 9781847250049
Published by A&C Black on December 20th 2008
Genres: History, General, Military, World War I, Personal Memoirs
Pages: 192

Len's Summary: An introduction to WWI memoirs as being of both literary and historical value. // An analysis of Western Front memoirs published by a range of British luminaries including Anthony Eden, Harold McMillan, General F. P. Crozier and several war poets including Edmund Blunden.

The Railway Operating Division on the Western Front: The Royal Engineers in France and Belgium 1915-1919

The Railway Operating Division on the Western Front: The Royal Engineers in France and Belgium 1915-1919The Railway Operating Division on the Western Front: The Royal Engineers in France and Belgium 1915-1919 by William A.T. Aves
ISBN: 9781900289993
Published by Shaun Tyas on December 1st 2009
Genres: Military, World War I
Pages: 208

Len's Summary: A history of the integrated Royal Engineer rail system that supported the BEF under the overall command of Sir Eric Geddes. // The BEF’s rail operation expanded mightily into an integrated rail, road and waterway system based on Channel supply depots all under command of a civilian, Sir Eric Geddes. Order from Amazon.co.uk.

Famous, 1914-1918

Famous, 1914-1918Famous, 1914-1918 by Richard Van Emden, Vic Piuk
ISBN: 1848841973
Published by Pen & Sword Books on March 1st 2010
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Great Britain
Pages: 350

Len's Summary: The stories of 20 of Britain’s most respected, best known and notorious celebrities in action on WWI. // Tells the stories of British celebrities and literati such as Basil Rathbone, C. S. Lewis, and J. R. R. Toiken who served in WWI.

All the Tsar’s Men: Russia’s General Staff and the Fate of the Empire, 1898-1914

All the Tsar’s Men: Russia’s General Staff and the Fate of the Empire, 1898-1914All the Tsar's Men: Russia's General Staff and the Fate of the Empire, 1898-1914 by John W. Steinberg
ISBN: 9780801895456
Published by Johns Hopkins University Press on March 18th 2010
Genres: History, Europe, Russia & the Former Soviet Union, General
Pages: 408

Len's Summary: A study in the institutional reforms that failed to prevent defeat in either the Russo-Japanese War or WWI. // The author ties the fate of empire to only partially successful efforts to create a truly professional officer corps in Russia in the wake of the Russo-Japanese War debacle.

The Great Silence: 1918-1920 Living in the Shadow of the Great War

The Great Silence: 1918-1920 Living in the Shadow of the Great WarThe Great Silence: 1918-1920 Living in the Shadow of the Great War by Juliet Nicolson
ISBN: 9781552788134
Published by McArthur & Company on November 12th 2009
Genres: History, General, Great Britain, Social History
Pages: 302

Len's Summary: An entertaining view of life in England from the Armistice in 1918 to the 1920 burial of the Unknown Soldier. Ms. Nicholson also wrote The Perfect Summer: Dancing into the Shadows in 1911 (Murray, 2007) an examination of English society three years before war erupted. // A social history of post-war Britain. Totally unprepared for peace following an expansion of the franchise and the ‘khaki election’ of 1918, the Lloyd George government was unable meet to expectations raised by its promise to create “a land fit for heroes” for returning trench veterans. By the same author: The Perfect Summer: Dancing into Shadows, 1911, 304 pages, John Murray, 2007, ISBN 0 7195 6243 0. £5.55 from Amazon.co.uk. A glimpse of British society at the end of the Edwardian Era on the brink of The Great War.

Mons, Anzac and Kut by an MP

Mons, Anzac and Kut by an MPMons, Anzac and Kut by an MP by Edward Melotte
ISBN: 9781848841758
Published by Pen & Sword Books on January 19th 2010
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Great Britain, Personal Memoirs
Pages: 217

Len's Summary: Memoirs of a BEF intelligence officer on several fronts. // The WWI experiences of a British soldier, diplomat and adventurer.

Richthofen Jagdstaffel Ahead: REF Pilots Out-Performed and Out-Gunned Over the Western Front

Richthofen Jagdstaffel Ahead: REF Pilots Out-Performed and Out-Gunned Over the Western FrontRichthofen Jagdstaffel Ahead: REF Pilots Out-Performed and Out-Gunned Over the Western Front by Peter McManus
ISBN: 9781906502003
Published by Casemate Publishers on December 1st 2008
Genres: History, Military, Aviation, World War I
Pages: 224

Len's Summary: A mediocre work on a familiar subject. // RFC 40 Squadron takes on a technically superior Flying Circus.

The Origin of the Fighter Aircraft

The Origin of the Fighter AircraftThe Origin of the Fighter Aircraft by Jon Guttman
ISBN: 9781594160837
Published by Westholme on July 29th 2009
Genres: History, Military, Weapons, World War I, Aviation
Pages: 294

Len's Summary: Technical information, personalities, and battle accounts tell the story of early fighter aircraft and how they became integral part of battlefield weaponry. // A new history of the First Air War and the early evolution of air power, by one of the masters of aviation history.

The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in World War I

The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in World War IThe AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in World War I by Mark Ethan Grotelueschen
ISBN: 0521169097
Published by Cambridge University Press on October 4th 2010
Genres: Military, United States, World War I
Pages: 387

Len's Summary: First published in 2006, this work offers a new look at the development of AEF combat tactics by a premier American historian of the war. // An analysis of how AEF commanders devised improved tactics to meet unforeseen conditions on the Western Front written by an Assistant Professor of History at the USAF Academy. A welcome professional reexamination of the AEF’s combat record.

The Vertigo Years: Europe 1900-1914

The Vertigo Years: Europe 1900-1914The Vertigo Years: Europe 1900-1914 by Philipp Blom
ISBN: 9780465020294
Published by Basic Books on November 2nd 2010
Genres: History, General
Pages: 488

Len's Summary: Europe between the death of Queen Victoria and the eruption of WWI in the throes of massive change. The continent was riddled with militarism, experiencing wide- spread political, economic and cultural upheaval, as well as astounding medical and technical advances. See also: The Proud Tower, Barbara Tuchman (1966), a lively, informative and well-crafted narrative history by the author of The Guns of August and The Zimmermann Telegram reprinted by Library of America in 2012. // The author contends that growing self-doubt among European elites led then to glorify war and welcome the cataclysm as the only way to cleanse their cultures of its sickness. Foretastes of disaster include Britain near-defeat in the Anglo-Borer War, Russia’s humiliation in the Russo-Japanese War and America’s 1907 Wall Street crash

Broken Men: Shell Shock, Treatment and Recovery in England, 1914-1930

Broken Men: Shell Shock, Treatment and Recovery in England, 1914-1930Broken Men: Shell Shock, Treatment and Recovery in England, 1914-1930 by Fiona Reid
ISBN: 9781441148858
Published by A&C Black on September 29th 2011
Genres: History, Military, World War I, Psychology, Neuropsychology, Great Britain
Pages: 224

Len's Summary: Support and treatment for shell shock victims by the RMC and The Ex-Servicemen Welfare Society.

Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921

Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921 by James Wood
ISBN: 9780774817660
Published by UBC Press, University of Washington Press on January 28th 2011
Genres: History, Canada, Post-Confederation (1867-), Military, World War I
Pages: 350

Len's Summary: A social and military history of popular Canadian military culture. // For all its faults, Canada’s militia system arguably made Canada better prepared for WWI than either America or England.

German Soldiers in the Great War: Letters and Eyewitness Accounts

German Soldiers in the Great War: Letters and Eyewitness AccountsGerman Soldiers in the Great War: Letters and Eyewitness Accounts by Bernd Ulrich, Benjamin Ziemann
ISBN: 1848841418
Published by Pen & Sword Books on March 1st 2011
Genres: History, Europe, Germany, Military, World War I, Veterans
Pages: 212

Len's Summary: Primary source material on the perceptions of German front line soldiers. // A look at the lives of German front-line soldiers based on their own writings.